Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder that can also cause dementia and behavioral abnormalities is another important disease target for NE3107. PD and AD share many similarities with regard to the central roles of inflammation and insulin resistance on disease processes, although the diseases predominately attack different parts of the brain.
Like Alzheimer’s disease, PD progresses slowly, with worsening symptoms resulting in disability five to ten years after diagnosis. Most PD patients are treated with levodopa in combination with carbidopa that slows L-dopa metabolism to a form that cannot be transported into the brain (dopamine). Prolonged use of L-dopa frequently causes a side effect of involuntary movements called L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID), which can be as disabling as PD itself and is a major limitation to L-dopa therapy.
In PD the protein alpha synuclein (SNA) is over expressed and misfolded, which creates inflammatory SNA aggregates in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra that makes the movement mediating neurotransmitter, dopamine. Inflammation causes neuron death and dysfunction in the substantia nigra and surrounding regions of the striatum (region of brain coordinating motion, decision making and other important functions), leading to a shortage of dopamine and suboptimal activity of the lower concentration of dopamine present because of neuron death. NE3107 decreases neuroinflammation and the resulting insulin resistance to slow neurodegeneration and improve neuron function.